Reference Guidelines Reference Guidelines

 | Post date: 2017/10/31 | 
In Archives of Hygiene Sciences (AHS), references should be cited according to the Vancouver reference style. Please use Endnote or similar reference managing software to insert the references. Using MS Word References tab to insert the references in the main document is highly preferred and recommended.

In-text citations

  • A citation is an acknowledgement in your text of references that support your work. It is in the form of a number that correlates with a source in your reference list.
  • In the Vancouver Style, citations within the text of the essay/paper are identified by Arabic numbers in round brackets. This applies to references in text, tables and figures.
  •  The Vancouver System assigns a number to each reference as it is cited.  A number must be used even if the author(s) is named in the sentence/text. e.g.  Smith (10) has argued that...
  • The original number assigned to the reference is reused each time the reference is cited in the text, regardless of its previous position in the text.
  • When multiple references are cited at a given place in the text, use a hyphen to join the first and last numbers that are inclusive. Use commas (without spaces) to separate non-inclusive numbers in a multiple citation e.g. (2,3,4,5,7,10) is abbreviated to (2-5,7,10).
  • Do not use a hyphen if there are no citation numbers in between that support your statement e.g. (1-2).
  • The placement of citation numbers within text should be carefully considered e.g. a particular reference may be relevant to only part of a sentence. As a general rule, reference numbers should be placed outside full stops and commas and inside colons and semicolons. For examples: There have been efforts to replace mouse inoculation testing with invitro tests, such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (57,60) or polymerase chain reaction (20-22) but these remain experimental.


Elements of the Citation

Author(s) – Family name and initials, multiple authors separated by a comma. Title of book. Edition of book if later than 1st ed. Place of Publication: Publisher Name; Year of Publication.
Reference Type In-text example Reference list example
One author The book, “Secrets from the black bag”,
by Butler (1) shows that ...
Butler (1) purported ‘...’
1. Butler SW. Secrets from the Black Bag. London: The Royal College of General Practitioners; 2005.
Two to six authors ‘... needed to influence policy.’ (2)
Cheers, Darracott and Lonne have highlighted the fact that ‘...’ (2)
2. Cheers B, Darracott R, Lonne B. Social care practice in rural communities. Sydney: The Federation Press; 2007.
Six or more authors Professionals in collaboration (3) 3. Hofmeyr GJ, Neilson JP, Alfirevic Z, Crowther CA, Gulmezoglu AM, Hodnett ED et al. A Cochrane pocketbook: Pregnancy and childbirth. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2008.
No author ‘ not die from the disease (4) 4. A guide for women with early breast cancer. Sydney: National Breast Cancer; 2003.
Multiple works by the same author The main clinical and research interests of Dr Marilyn Campbell (5-6) are focused on ... 5. Campbell MA. A is for anxiety: A parent's guide to managing anxious children. Brisbane: Post Pressed; 2007.
6. Campbell MA. Anthony the shy alien. Brisbane: Post Pressed; 2006.
Different Editions What has become known as the “Bible of General Practice” in Australia (7)... 7. Murtagh J. John Murtagh’s General practice. 4th ed. Sydney: McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd; 2007. An edition number is placed after the title of the work. This is not necessary for a first edition
Edited book In all cases, it is important to note the outer diameter of the tube (8) ... 8.  Brooks A, Mahoney P, Rowlands B, editors. ABC of tubes, drains, lines and frames. West Sussex: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
Book in a series The binding of ligand to most seven- transmembrane (STM) G-protein- coupled receptors leads to changes in the coupling of G proteins to the receptor (9) ...
Name of book = Chemokine receptors Title of series = Methods in enzymology
9. Bennett GL, Horuk R. Iodination of chemokines for use in receptor binding analysis. In: Horuk R, editor. Chemokine receptors. New York (NY): Academic Press; 1997. p. 134-48. (Methods in enzymology; vol 288).
Electronic book – entire book Bartlett concludes that (10)... 10. Bartlett A. Breastwork: Rethinking breastfeeding [monograph online]. Sydney, NSW: University of New South Wales Press. Available from: Net Library. Accessed Nov 10, 2009.
Translation of a book Luria discovers that (11) ... 11. Luria AR. The mind of a mnemonist [L. Solotaroff, trans]. New York: Avon Books; 1969.
Chapter in an edited book As discussed by Rowlands and Haine (12)
12. Rowlands TE, Haine LS. Acute limb ischaemia. In: Donnelly R, London NJM, editors. ABC of arterial and venous disease. 2nd ed. West Sussex. Blackwell Publishing; 2009.
Chapter in a book ...due to endometriosis (13)... 13. Speroff L, Fritz MA. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2005. Chapter 29, Endometriosis; p.1103-33.
Need to enter the Chapter information and page numbers manually
Chapter from an electronic book Darwin believes that the natural selection (14) ... 14. Darwin C. On the Origin of Species by means of natural selection or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life [internet]. London: John Murray; 1859. Chapter 5, Laws of Variation. Available from: Accessed Nov 22, 2010.
Persian Book Rafeei believes that the natural selection (12) ... 12. Rafeei T. Ritmic movements and games: Coaching, therapists and families manuals. Tehran: Danzheh Publication; 2013. p. 1-61. (Persian)

Dictionary or Encyclopedia

Reference type In-text examples Reference list example
Dictionary ‘is defined as ... (15) 15. Stedman’s medical dictionary. 26th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1995. Apraxia; p.119-20.
Note:  Include the defined topic – e.g. apraxia
Dictionary (online) ‘is defined as ... (16) 16.  Stedman’s medical dictionary. *Internet+. 26th
ed.  Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1995. Apraxia; p. 119 -20. Available from: Accessed Nov 11, 2009.
Encyclopedia ‘Hanrahan has advocated that ...’ (17) 17. Brookman F. Hair care products. In:  McDonough J, Egolf K, Reid JV, editors. The Advertising Age encyclopedia of advertising. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn; 2003.( vol 2) p. 703-08

Journal Articles

Elements of the Citation

Author(s) – Family name and initials. Title of article. Title of journal – abbreviated Publication year, month, day (month & day only if available); volume(issue):pages

Note: Journal titles may be abbreviated according to the style used in the PubMed database. Go to the PubMed Journals database site: to look up journal abbreviations (to find the full journal name) or journal names in full (to find the journal abbreviation). Choose the Journals in NCBI Databases ( link.

Reference type In-text examples Reference list example
Standard journal article – one author As highlighted by Snowdon, (18)... 18. Snowdon J. Severe depression in old age. Medicine Today 2002 Dec;3(12):40-47.
Standard journal article – two authors McInnes & Bollen (19) have developed a perspective which identifies 19. McInnes D, Bollen J. Learning on the job: metaphors of choreography and the practice of sex in sex-on- premises venues. Venereology 2000; 13(1):27-36.
Standard journal article – three to six authors By using meta-analysis, Skalsky et al (20) ... 20. Skalsky K, Yahav D, Bishara J, Pitlik S, Leibovici L, Paul M. Treatment of human brucellosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2008 Mar 29;336(7646):701-4.
Journal article – more than six authors Hanna et al (21) report in this article that ... 21. Hanna JN, McBride WJ, Brookes DL, Shield J, Taylor CT, Smith IL, et al. Hendra virus infection in a veterinarian. Med J Aust 2006 Nov 20;185(10):562-64.
Journal article – in press O’Leary (22) states that... 22. O’Leary C. Vitamin C does little to prevent winter cold. The West Australian.  Forthcoming 2005 June
Electronic article – with DOI number Fletcher & Wagstaff (23) argue that
23. Fletcher D, Wagstaff CRD. Organisational psychology in elite sport: its emergence, application and future. Psychol Sport Exerc 2009;10(4):427-34. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport. 2009.03.009.
Electronic article
– without DOI number
According the Lemanek (24)... 24. Lemanek K. Adherence issues in the medical management of asthma. J Pediatr Psychol [Internet]. 1990;15(4):437-58.  Available from: Accessed Apr 22, 2010.
Enter cited date manually and change medium to internet  or leave as serial online as entered by Endnote
Cochrane Library Review Results found by Shaw et al (25)... 25. Shaw KA, O'Rourke P, Del Mar C, Kenardy J. Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet] 2005. Available from: /frame.html. Accessed Apr 10, 2010.
Article from UQ eReserve
Results found by Shaw (26)... 26. Shaw J. Epidemiology and prevention of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Med J Aust [Internet] 2003;179:379-83. Available from: University of Queensland Library E-Reserve
Persian Article Jafari found by Shaw (27)... 27. Jafari Z, Karimi H, Sazmand AH, Malayeri S. The comparison of handedness between 12-18 year old normal and congenitally deaf students. J Rehabil 2007;8(1):25-34. (Full Text in Persian)

Conference papers

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of paper – Family name and initials. Title of paper. In: Editor(s) Family name and initials, editor(s). Title of conference; Date of conference; Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher’s name; Year of publication. p. Page numbers.
Reference type In-text examples Reference list example
Published conference paper This is well documented in the literature. (27) 27. Bengtsson S, Solheim BG. Enforcement of data protection, privacy and security in medical informatics. In: Lun KC. Degoulet P. Piemme TE, Reinhoff O, editors. MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medical Informatics; 1992 Sep 6-10; Geneva, Switzerland. Amsterdam: North Holland; 1992. p. 1561-5.
Unpublished conference paper It has been found that endemic STD’s (28) 28. Bowden FJ, Fairley CK. Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner exchange. Paper presented at: The Scientific Meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians; 1996 June 24-25; Darwin, Australia.
Conference proceedings Research (29) supports... 29. Kimura J. Shibasaki H, editors. Recent advances in clinical neurophysiology. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of EMG and Clinical Neurophysiology; 1995 Oct 15-19; Kyoto, Japan. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1996.
Note: In the “conference title” field type in “Paper presented at:” and then enter all details of conference including the date and where conference took place.
Enter the place of publication in the “Conference location” field
In the ‘Publisher’ field – enter the place of publication, publisher and the year eg. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1996.

Newspaper and magazine articles

Elements of the citation

Author(s) – family name and initials. Article title. Newspaper title (edition of paper eg. Weekend edition). Date of publication – year month (3 letter abbreviation) day: Sect. Location eg. A:12 or Business 5 (5 is the page number) column number is applicable eg. col. 1) (Sect = Section)
Reference type In-text examples Reference list example
Newspaper article with author “many parents did not feed their babies enough” (30-31)... 30. Purdon F. Colder babies at risk of SIDS.The Courier Mail 2010 Mar8:9
31. Robertson J. Not married to the art. The Courier Mail (Weekend edition). 2010 Mar 6-7:Sect. ETC:15
Newspaper article without author The counsellors (32)... 32. Meeting the needs of counsellors. The Courier Mail 2001 May 5:22
Magazine article The findings of the research (33)... 33. Marano HE. Making of a perfectionist. Psychol Today 2008 Mar-Apr;41:80-86
Electronic newspaper or magazine article Reports of the extent of damage in Chile (34)... 34. Bajak F. Why Chile dodged Haiti-style ruin. Toronto Star (Canada) [serial online].  2010 Feb 28 [cited 2010 Mar 14]; Sect. News:A14 Available from: Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre.
Electronic newspaper article on the Internet The success of the Clem7 tunnel (34)... 35. Drivers told: “Don’t use Clem7 tunnel”.The Courier Mail [Internet]. 2010 Mar 16;  Available from: tunnel/story-e6freon6-1225841179464. Accessed Mar 16, 2010.
36. Sack K. With Medicaid cuts, doctors and patients drop out. The New York Times [Internet].2010 Mar 16; Health:A1. Available from: Accessed Mar 16, 2010.

Reports and other Government publications

Elements of a report citation

Author(s). Title of report. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication – year month if applicable. Total number of pages if applicable eg. 24 p. Report No.: (if applicable)
Reference type In-text examples Reference list example
/Technical report
Climate change (37)... 37. Australia. Parliament. Senate. Select Committee on Climate Policy. Climate policy report. Canberra: The Senate; 2009.
38. Page E, Harney JM. Health hazard evaluation report. Cincinnati (OH): National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US); 2001 Feb. 24 p. Report No.:HETA2000-0139-2824


Elements of the citation for a thesis

Printed Thesis: Author. Thesis title [type of thesis]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year.
Online Thesis: Author. Thesis title [type of thesis on the internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year [cited date – year month day]. Available from: Name of database/web address
Reference type In-text examples Reference list example
Thesis The research is support by Kay (39) ... 39. Kay JG. Intracellular cytokine trafficking and phagocytosis in macrophages [PhD Thesis]. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland; 2007.
Thesis – retrieved from database/internet The research (40)... 40. Pahl KM. Preventing anxiety and promoting social and emotional strength in early childhood: an investigation of aetiological risk factors [PhD Thesis]. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland. Available from: University of Queensland Library E-Reserve. Accessed Mar 24, 2010.
Persian Thesis Bandarianzadeh believed that (41) 41. Bandarianzadeh D. Evaluation of pregnant women irontherapy in primary health care system at the villages of Kerman city. [MA Thesis] Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences; 1993. p. 25–27. ( Persian)


Elements of the citation

Author. Title of publication [type of medium – Internet]. Place of publication (if available): Publisher (if available); Date of publication – year month day (supply year if month and day not available) [updated year month day; cited year month day]. Available from: web address.
Reference type In-text examples Reference list example
Web page - with author Behaviour medication (41)... 41. Atherton, J. Behaviour modification [Internet]. 2010 [updated 2010 Feb 10]. Available from: ehaviour_mod.htm. Accessed Apr 10, 2010.
Webpage – no author Coping with ADHD (42)... 42. The family impact of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) [Internet] 2009 Nov 1. Available from: andlifestyle.asp?sid=192&title=The-Family- Impact-of-Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity- Disorder-%28ADHD%29&page=2. Accessed Apr 8, 2010.
Webpage – no date Memory loss (43) is linked... 43. McCook A. Pre-diabetic condition linked to memory loss [internet]. 2010. Available from: Accessed Apr 8, 2010.
If neither a date of publication nor a date of copyright can be found for a Web site, use the date of update/revision and/or the date cited
Webpage – corporate author Swine flu (44)... 44. Queensland Health. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (Human Swine Influenza) [Internet]. 2010 [updated 2010 Feb 19]. Available from: swineflu/. Accessed Apr 8, 2010.
Web Article with DOI Drug dependence (45)... 45. Degenhardt L, Bohnert KM, Anthony C. Assessment of cocaine and other drug dependence in the general population: ‘Gated’ vs. ‘ungated’ approaches. Drug Alcohol Depend [Internet] 2008 Mar 1;93(3):227-232. Available from: 756072/DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.09.024. Accessed Apr 15, 2010.
Web Article with no DOI or feely available on Web Research shows that diabetes (46)... 46. Merzouk H, Bouchenak M, Loukidi B, Madani S, Prost J, Belleville J. Fetal macrosomia related maternal poorly controlled type 1 diabetes strongly impairs serum lipoprotein concentrations and composition. J Clin Pathol [internet] 2000; 53:917-923. Available from: ull.pdf+html. Accessed Apr 8, 2010.
Image on a webpage The image of the rash (47) 47. Scarlet Fever Rash Picture (Hardin MD Super Site Sample) [image on the Internet]. 2005 [updated 2008 Feb 1]. Available from: Accessed Apr 14, 2010.

Other Internet Sources:

Reference type In-text examples Reference list example
Podcasts The latest fossil discover (48)... 48. Dirks, P. “Missing Link” fossil discovery in South Africa [podcast on the internet]. Sydney: ABC Radio National; 2010 [updated 2010 Apr 9]. Available from: 0/2868072.htm. Accessed Apr 14, 2010.
Blog Post The list (49).. 49. East J. New medical journals terms list. 2010 Jan 25. In: East J. EndNote: EndNote updates at UQ [Internet]. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Library. 2007-2010- . [about 5 screens].Available from: 25/new-medical-journals-term-list/. Accessed Apr 20, 2010.

Personal Communication (oral, written & email)

Personal communication in qualitative studies or any other applications is entered manually in the text of your document. It cannot be done through EndNote. Personal communication should be included in the text of your document – cited in text only.
Personal communication should not be included in your reference list.
It is recommended you get permission from the source/author of your personal communication. Personal communication in the text of your document must include:
  • Date of communication
  • Type of communication – oral, written (eg. Letter, written communication) or email (include email address) Affiliation (university, organisation)- optional  and highest academic degree


In a conversation with a A. B. Smith, MD (April 2010)...


According to a letter by C. D. Jones (Assoc. Prof., Dept of Philosophy, University of Pittsburgh, PA) in November 2010... According to C.D. Jones , PhD (written communication, November 2010)...


In-text: In an email from E. Ferguson, PhD ( in August 2010...
Reference List: Ferguson E. How to cite in your assignments [online]. E-mail to Abe Smith ( 2010 Apr 20. Accessed Apr 28, 2010.

Note: It is important to keep a copy of the record.


Elements of the citation

Author. Title of brochure/pamphlet [pamphlet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.
Reference type In-text examples Reference list example
Pamphlets/Broch ures As listed in the pamphlet (50) by the... 50. Pharmaceutical Society of Australia. Medicines and driving [pamphlet]. Sydney: Pharmaceutical Society of Australia; 1998

Package Inserts (The printed material about the use and effects of the product contained in the package)

Elements of the citation

Name of Medicine [package insert]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.
Reference type In-text examples Reference list example
Package Insert One of the side effects (51) listed... 51. Lamasil [package insert]. East Hanover, NJ: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corp; 1993.

Lecture Notes

Elements of the citation

Lecturer. Title of Lecture [unpublished lecture notes]. Course code: course name, Institution where delivered; lecture given – date lecture given.
Reference type In-text examples Reference list example
Lecture notes In the lecture given by Smith (52)... 52. Johnson A. Week three: Foucault [unpublished lecture notes]. BESC3009: Relating with Young People, University of Queensland; lecture given 2010 Apr 20.

Video or DVD

Elements of the citation

Author/Producer (producer/director). Title [Type of Medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Publication Year. Extent (eg. 1 DVD): physical description – duration, sound, color, size.
Reference type In-text examples Reference list example
Video or DVD Examination of the neonate (53) revealed... 53. Robinson J (producer). Examination of the term neonate: A family centred approach [DVD]. South Hurstville, NSW: Midwifery Educational Services; 2005. 1 DVD: 37 min., sound, colour, 4¾ in.

Film or Broadcast

Elements of the citation

Producer, Director. Title [type of medium]. Series title. Place of Publication: Distributor; Date released.
Reference type In-text examples Reference list example
Television or radio programs As seen in the MacNeil/Lehrer news hour (54) 54. The medical profession in the 1990’s *television broadcast]. The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour. New York, Washington D.C.: Public Broadcasting Service; 1993 Oct 11

Indirect citation/Secondary source

A secondary source/indirect citation:  Is when the ideas of one author are published in another author’s text but you have not read or accessed the original author’s work. In the list of references provide the details of the author of the work you have read.
Reference type In-text examples Reference list example
Book as a secondary source Higgins discusses Newman’s research in his work (55) ... 55. Higgins D. Horizons: the poetics and theory of the intermedia. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press: 1984
Journal as a secondary source Clements quoted Chandler in his article (56) ... 56. Clements C. The facts about cocaine (drugs), Science and Children [serial online]. 2007; 44(7): 44. Available from: ProQuest. Accessed Apr 20, 2010.

Tables, Figures, Images or Appendices

Elements of the citation

Journal example:
Enter your normal journal reference followed by: space Table/Figure/Appendix Number of table/figure/appendix from original source, Title of table/figure/image/appendix from original source; p. Page number of table/figure/appendix from original source.
Book example:
Enter your normal book reference followed by: space Table/Figure/Appendix Number of table/figure/appendix from original source, Title of table/figure/image/appendix from original source; p. Page number of table/figure/appendix from original source.
Reference type In-text examples Reference list example
Tables, Figures, Images or Appendices Table 3. Examples of vaccine classes and associated industrial challenges (57).
Table 5. Chocolate related crime: Old Bailey court records (58).
Figure 3. Marconi’s grounded antenna (59).
Please Note: that the table number in these examples would be the table number in your document not the table number in the original document. The original table number must be cited in the reference list. If you change the table title in your document, you must cite the original title of the table in the reference list.
57. Smith J, Lipsitch M, Almond JW.Vaccine production, distribution, access, anduptake. Lancet 2011;378(9789):428-438. Table1, Examples of vaccine classes andassociated industrial challenges; p.429.
58. Grivetti LE. Chocolate, crime, and thecourts: Selected English Trial Documents, 1693-1834. In: Grivetti LE, Shapiro H, editors. Chocolate: History and culture. Hoboken, New Jersey. John Wiley& Sons; 2009. Table 20.1, Chocolate-relatedcrime: Old Bailey court records; p.244.
59. Hong S. Wireless: From Marconi’s black-box to the Audion. London, England. MIT Press; 2001. Figure 1.5, Marconi’s grounded antenna; p. 21.

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