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:: Volume 9, Issue 4 (Autumn 2020) ::
Arch Hyg Sci 2020, 9(4): 287-298 Back to browse issues page
Investigation and Prioritization of Factors Affecting Implementation of Student Sports Development Health Strategies
Seyedomid Mahmoodi , Seyed Mohammad Razavi * , Morteza Dousti , Saeid Tabesh
Professor, Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
Keywords: Health facility size, Health physics, Health policy, Sustainable development, Youth sports.
Full-Text [PDF 576 kb]   (17 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (66 Views)
Type of Study: Case Study | Subject: Educational Health
Received: 2020/06/17 | Accepted: 2020/10/6
Full-Text:   (13 Views)
Background
Courses in schools and universities are periods of the formation of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors or practices related to health and should always be run in a way that supports a healthy lifestyle and associated effective factors (1). Student sports participation, pleasure, and subsequent attraction prevent social deviations, abnormal behaviors, and unhealthy entertainment. Student sports are important parts of the field of educational sports, the main goals of which
are to provide the necessary grounds and opportunities for students to achieve a healthy, dynamic, lively, healthy, recreational, and competitive environment (2).
Student sports participation, pleasure, and subsequent attraction prevent social deviations, abnormal behaviors, and unhealthy pastimes (3). In addition, universities undertake the task of providing and training skilled and healthy human resources, and university sports can play an important role in the academic enrichment
of students and other human resources of universities. Therefore, the development of university sports should be one of the main goals of the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science (4).
Recent studies conducted in Iran indicating the need and benefits of using comprehensive programs and health and wellness strategies and identifying internal and external factors for student sports organizations can be mentioned as follows:
A study carried out by Hamidi et al. (2012) on designing the health and health strategies program of the National Federation of University Sports identified the position of the health strategies of the federation in a conservative position (5).
A study carried out by Javadipour (2012) on explaining the appropriate perspectives and approaches to develop health and wellness planning strategies in student sports and macro approaches to student sports to achieve a healthy society, improve the cultural and moral situation of the country, and enhance the workforce to increase productivity and production announced that its main approach is to increase the level of health (5).
A study carried out by Afroozeh (2011) on explaining the health and wellness strategies of the physical education of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Fars, Iran, showed that the physical education of this university has a great budget but with a lack of health strategies program. The existence of general physical education units is one of the opportunities and the lack of sports-related disciplines is one of the threats in this domain.
A study carried out by Hosseini (2011) on compiling the operational plan of student sports of Islamic Azad University announced that the position of the health strategies of student sports of this university is in the conservative zone (weaknesses and opportunities [WO]) (6).
The findings of a study carried out by Hamidi et al. (2009) indicated that the General Department of Physical Education of the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology in terms of the position of health strategies is in the strengths and opportunities (SO) domain in the SWOT matrix. In other words, this general department can make good use of strengths and opportunities to eliminate weaknesses and reduce the effects of threats (7).
The lack of reliable models with objective examples in the university sports system prompted the researchers to provide a structural model for the development of student sports
by relying on the opinions of experienced university sports experts. In addition, sports activities play an important role in making students more productive and enriching their leisure time by providing health and creating a spirit of vitality and freshness among them. On the other hand, the importance of sports activities in significantly increasing the quantity and quality of students and their need for appropriate sports spaces for educational activities and extracurricular activities reveal the importance and necessity of addressing the areas and factors related to the development of sports facilities, services, programs, and events for students the enhancement of sports in universities in this field. Therefore, specialized studies and model-based studies are needed
in order to develop principles and logical structures. Furthermore, comprehensive and reliable models have not been provided in specialized fields, such as university sports. Consequently, providing a suitable structural and theoretical model in this field can be a
great help to the purposefulness of sports development planning in universities.
 
 
Materials & Methods

 
In terms of results, this study was a type of applied research and strategic study designed to help improve the performance of the public universities in the long run by the development of a strategic plan through scientific methods. Descriptive studies were used, and the data were collected and analyzed using qualitative and strategic analysis methods.
In addition, in order to comment on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the General Directorate of Physical Education, it was necessary to have knowledgeable individuals familiar with sports at public universities and internal and external factors of the General Directorate of Physical Education. These individuals have been active in key physical educational occupations at public universities and its student sports. The size of the sample community was calculated at 23 individuals who were randomly selected from the statistical population.
 
 
Results

 
The obtained results showed that out of 1.4 million public universities students, the frequency of the male athletes at the university was about 4,122, organized into 11 sports, with the largest share of attendance being related to individual sports, the most important of which are Taekwondo and Karate. Moreover, the frequency of the female athletes at the university was about 2,522, organized into 13 sports, the largest of which are team sports, and the most important of which is volleyball. Furthermore, regarding the number of coaches and referees of  public universities, the results showed that there were no organized statistics on the number of referees and coaches working at public universities, and in most cases they are temporarily invited to cooperate with a project not in the university to take necessary measures.
 
Matrix of internal and external factors of the General Department of Physical Education of public universities
An internal factor matrix was used for the evaluation of internal factors. In this matrix, the identified strengths and weaknesses were placed in a matrix column and scored using specific coefficients and ratings to determine whether the General Directorate of Physical Education of public universities is strong or weak in terms of internal factors. In this matrix, strategic or priority internal factors are listed in the first column in the form of strengths and weaknesses, and then in the second column, these factors were compared to each other according to the importance and sensitivity of each factor, with the coefficient of importance within 0 to 1. The allocation of these coefficients should be in a way that the sum of the coefficients of all internal factors is not more than 1. In the third column, depending on whether the strengths and weaknesses are key or normal, rank 4 or 3 is assigned to strengths and rank 2 or 1 is assigned to weaknesses. The ranking is as follows:
if the strengths are excellent, they are ranked 4th;
if they are normal, they are ranked 3rd;
if the weaknesses are normal, they are ranked 2nd;
if they are critical, they are ranked 1st.
Therefore, the ranking process is in a way that with moving from excellent strength to critical weakness, the ranking decreases from 4 to 1. In the fourth column, the coefficients of the second column and rankings of the third column are multiplied for each factor to determine the score of that factor (i.e., strength or weakness). At the end of this column, the final score of the committee is determined in terms of the strengths or weaknesses. If the total final score of the committee in this matrix is ​​more than 2.5, it means that according to the predictions, the strengths of the committee will overcome its weaknesses. In addition, if this score is less than 2.5, it shows the dominance of weaknesses over its strengths (8).
The matrix of external factors consists of strengths and weaknesses.
The strengths are as follows:
Code S1: Existence of several educational centers in the field of physical education; the highest coverage in the country due to the number of centers, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.087, factor intensity of 4, and score of 0.348
Code S2: Public universities throughout the country and presence of this university, even in the most remote parts of the country, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.098, factor intensity of 4, and score of 0.392
Code S3: Highest ethnic diversity and genetic talents for specific sports, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.057, factor intensity of 3, and score of 0.171
Code S4: Possibility of continuing education for working individuals and native students, especially women who are able to do so only in their place of residence, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.065, factor intensity of 3, and score of 0.156
Code S5: Existence of General Department of Physical Education in the structure of public universities, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.063, factor intensity of 3, and score of 0.189
Code S6: Regular holding of competitions, festivals, and Olympiads within and between universities, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.058, factor intensity of 4, and score of 0.189
Code S7: Having a specific budget related to students’ sports per capita in the General Department of Physical Education of public universities, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.058, factor intensity of 4, and score of 0.328
The weaknesses are as follows:
Code W1: Lack of multi-responsibility physical educational managers of public university educational centers, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.082, factor intensity of 2, and score of 0.164
Code W2: Lack of sports facilities in public universities and lack of facilities in educational centers, especially in deprived cities where the lack of facilities increases the problems, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.088, intensity factor of 2, and score of 0.176
Code W3: Elimination or integration of student sports budget lines in public universities, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.075, factor intensity of 2, and score of 0.50
Code W4: Lack of active student sports associations, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.055, factor intensity of 1, and score of 0.05
Code W5: Organizational chart and inappropriate structure of physical education in public universities, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.073, factor intensity of 1, and score of 0.073
Code W6: Lack of systematic information and identification of student athletes for competitions, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.062, factor intensity of 2, and score of 0.124
Code W7: Lack of adequate communication and cooperation between different departments of public universities, including administrative management, finance, student affairs, and cultural affairs, and management of physical education, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.055, factor intensity of 1, and score of 0.055
 The obtained results showed that the total score of the matrix of the internal factors was more than 2.5 (2.594) indicating that the General Department of Physical Education of public universities was strong in terms of the internal factors (Table 1).

 
 
Table 1) Matrix of internal factors of the General Department of Physical Education of public universities (8)
Score Factor intensity Importance factor (weight) Factor Code Internal factor
0.348 4 0.087 Existence of numerous educational centers in the field of physical education; highest coverage area in the country due to the multiplicity of centers S1 Strengths
0.392 4 0.098 Public universities across the country and presence of these universities even in the most remote parts of the country S2
0.171 3 0.057 Highest ethnic diversity and genetic talents for specific sports S3
0.156 3 0.065 Possibility of continuing education for working people and local students, especially women who are only able to do so in their place of residence S4
0.189 3 0.063 Existence of the General Department of Physical Education in the structure of public universities S5
0.189 3 0.082 Holding regular competitions, festivals, and Olympiads inside and outside the university S6
0.328 4 0.085 Having a clear and relevant budget for students’ sports per capita in the General Department of Physical Education of public universities S7
0.164 2 0.082 Lack of multi-responsibility physical education managers in public universities educational centers W1 Weaknesses
0.176 2 0.088 Lack of sports facilities in public universities and educational centers, especially in deprived cities where the lack of facilities in the city adds to the problems W2
0.150 2 0.075 Elimination or integration of student sports budget lines in public universities W3
0.055 1 0.055 Lack of active student sports associations W4
0.073 1 0.073 Organizational chart and inappropriate structure of physical education in public universities W5
0.124 2 0.062 Lack of a system of informing and identifying student athletes for competitions W6
0.055 1 0.055 Lack of proper communication and cooperation between different departments of public universities, including administrative management, finance, student affairs, and cultural affairs, and physical education management W7
Σ=2.594   Σ= 1 Total coefficients of importance of internal factors
 
 
The external factors evaluation matrix was used for the evaluation of external factors. This matrix also uses the above-mentioned process. If the total final score of the General Department of Physical Education in this matrix is ​​more than 2.5, it means that according to the predictions, the opportunities facing the General Directorate of Physical Education will overcome its threats. In addition, if this score is less than 2.5, it indicates the overcoming of threats to its opportunities (9).
The external factors evaluation matrix was used for the evaluation of external factors. This matrix also uses the above-mentioned process.
If the total final score of the General Department of Physical Education in this matrix is ​​more than 2.5, it means that according to the predictions, the opportunities facing the General Directorate of Physical Education will overcome its threats. In addition, if this score is less than 2.5, it indicates the overcoming of threats to its opportunities (10).
The matrix of external factors includes opportunities and threats.
The opportunities are as follows:
Code O1: Having more budget and possibility of spending it at the discretion of the relevant authorities, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.082, factor intensity of 4, and score of 0.328
Code O2: Existence of facilities, databases, communications, and official and public supporters in all the provinces of the country to advance the goals of the university, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.097, factor intensity of 4, and score of 0.388
Code O3: Existence of general physical education courses 1 and 2 for all fields of study, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.063, factor intensity of 3, and score of 0.189
Code O4: Having a large student population in different age ranges, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.081, factor intensity of 4, and score of 0.324
Code O5: Existence of a PhD degree in physical education in a public university, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.059, factor intensity of 3, and score of 0.177
Code O6: Possibility of access and use of all the diversities of water, air, and climate throughout the country, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.063, factor intensity of 3, and score of 0.189
Code O7: Decisions of the Ministry of Science on the assistance and cooperation of professors of other universities with the university, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.055, factor intensity of 3, and score of 0.165
The threats are as follows:
Code T1: Inadequacy between student enrollment with staff and infrastructure of the university, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.084, factor intensity of 2, and score of 0.168
Code T2: Lack of ownership and rental of most university sports facilities and spaces, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.072, factor intensity of 2, and score of 0.144
Code T3: Lack of integration of student sports in all public university centers and active number of students and educational centers, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.068, factor intensity of 2, and score of 0.136
Code T4: Failure to provide proper extracurricular sports services in a public university, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.077, factor intensity of 2, and score of 0.154
Code T5: Limited time of students’ presence in the university, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.065, factor intensity of 1, and score of 0.065
Code T6: Living, educational, and overwork problems of university students, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.069, factor intensity of 1, and score of 0.069
Code T7: Lack of support and attention of senior university managers to sports activities, with a coefficient of importance (weight) of 0.065, factor intensity of 2, and score of 0.130
The sum of the coefficients of the importance of the external factors is the significance coefficient (weight) of Σ = 1, and the score is Σ = -2.626 (Table 2).
In general, the results of tables 1 and 2 in addition to the internal and external matrix indicated that the student sports of the General Department of Physical Education of public universities in terms of strategic position are in
 
 
 
Table 2) Matrix of external factors of the General Department of Physical Education of public universities  (8)
Score Factor intensity Importance factor (weight) Factor Code External factor
0.328 4 0.082 Having the most extravagant budget, thereby spending it at the discretion of the relevant authorities O1 Opportunities
0.388 4 0.097 Existence of facilities, bases, communications, and official and public supporters in all provinces of the country to advance the goals of the university O2
0.189 3 0.063 Existence of general physical education courses 1 and 2 for all fields of study O3
0.324 4 0.081 Having a large student population in different age ranges O4
0.177 3 0.059 Existence of a PhD degree in physical education at public universities O5
0.189 3 0.063 Ability to access and use all the diversities of water, air, and climate throughout the country O6
0.165 3 0.055 Decisions of the Ministry of Science on the assistance and cooperation of professors from other universities with the university O7
0.168 2 0.084 Mismatch between student enrollment and university infrastructure T1 Threats
0.144 2 0.072 Lack of ownership and rental of most university sports facilities and spaces T2
0.136 2 0.068 Lack of student sports integration in all executive centers of public universities and limited number of students and educational centers T3
0.154 2 0.077 Lack of proper provision of extracurricular sports services at public universities T4
0.065 1 0.065 Limited time of students to attend university T5
0.069 1 0.069 Living, educational, and overwork problems of university students T6
0.130 2 0.065 Lack of support and attention of senior university administrators to sports activities T7
Σ=-2.626   Σ= 1 Total coefficients of importance of internal factors
 
 
the SO domain in the SWOT matrix. This finding showed that regarding the internal factors, it has strength and regarding the external factors it has opportunity. In addition, the General Department of Physical Education of public universities should use development and growth Health strategies (Fred David) because it has achieved the final score of the evaluation matrix of the internal and external factors in the field of growth and construction in student sports.
The internal-external matrix was used for the simultaneous analysis of internal and external factors. The SWOT matrix was used to determine the position of the General Directorate of Physical Education. To form this matrix, the scores obtained from the evaluation matrices of the internal and external factors are placed in the horizontal and vertical dimensions to determine the position of the General Directorate of Physical Education in the houses of this matrix and adopt appropriate health strategies in this regard. In this matrix, the scores are determined in a two-part spectrum, including strong (2.5-4) and weak (1-2.5) (10).
 
Health strategies of the General Department of Physical Education of public universities
According to the SWOT analysis, a total of 15 health strategies were developed, including seven SO (strengths and opportunities) health strategies, three ST (strengths and threats) health strategies, three WO (weaknesses and opportunities( health strategies, and two WT (weaknesses and threats) strategies, for student sports at the General Department of Physical Education of public universities as follows:
1- Forming and developing associations, boards, and sports clubs
2- Reviewing and improving the educational process and curriculum of general physical education courses 1 and 2 and creating a change in the way it is implemented in order to achieve the goals of student sports in the public university
3- Strengthening the entrepreneurial system, culture, and volunteer movement in the student sports of the public university
4- Constructing and improving the sports infrastructure of the public university
5- Designing, compiling, and implementing the health and health strategies strategy of public universities student sports
6- Creating an information system and attracting students to participate in the sports activities of the public university
7- Identifying and using the capacities of the public university (i.e., human resources, in addition to financial, administrative, and facilities) in order to grow and develop sports
8- Development of cooperation and participation of universities in the provinces for the implementation of student sports
9- Developing domestic competitions (i.e., league, provincial, and national championships) and improving the quality of student sports at the public university
10- Trying to remove the obstacles to increase the proper presence of students and staff, especially women, in university sports
11- Strengthening the programs of attracting, encouraging, and supporting the champions and student sports activists of the university
12- Providing stability in the university-related sports management positions
13- Governing the central program in the institutions related to student sports of the General Department of Physical Education of public universities
14- Strengthening and stabilizing the management and administration of physical education in the structure of the provinces and executive centers of the public university throughout the country
15- Utilizing the scientific capacities of professors and students of different levels of physical education in public university centers in order to make university sports scientific
 
Discussion

 
This study investigated the factors affecting the implementation of health strategies for the development of student sports in public universities. Planning health strategies by analyzing the current situation indicates where the organization is currently standing and by analyzing the desired situation it says where it is intending to reach. For this purpose, the present study examined the internal and external factors of each organization. Since the environment of each organization is unique, it is unprincipled to discuss the results of the study regarding similar health and wellness strategies and compare them in terms of alignment or non-alignment, given the different variables they have around them.
Therefore, the discussion and comparison of the results of the study on health strategies and their comparison in terms of alignment or non-alignment are unprincipled with many contradictions, because the environment of each organization is unique with separate and diverse variables (11). Sports activities play an important role in making students more productive and enriching students’ leisure time by the provision of health and creation of a spirit of vitality and freshness among them. On the other hand, the importance of sports activities in significantly increasing the quantity and quality of students and their need for
sports facilities suitable for educational and extracurricular activities reveal the importance and necessity of addressing the areas and factors related to the growth of facilities, services, programs, and sports events for students and in general the development of sports in universities in this area. Therefore, it is required to carry out specialized and model-oriented studies in order to formulate principles and logical structures. In addition, comprehensive and reliable models have not been provided in specialized fields, such as university sports; as a result, providing a suitable structural and theoretical model in this field can be a good help to the purposeful planning of sports development in universities.
In line with the present study, the documents and programs of many health and wellness strategies that were developed in the field of sports development were reviewed, the most important of which are studies conducted by Goodarzi (2007), Khosravi Zadeh (2008), Nasirzadeh (2008), Hamidi et al. (2018), Seif Panahi Shabani (2011), Abdavi et al. (2011), Hosseini (2011), Ghofrani (2010), Badrin Azin (2006), Javadipour (2012), and Afroozeh (2011) (, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20).
Therefore, in general, despite the differences in the number and priority of the steps and
steps of the models, all the models have approximately a similar structure. On the other hand, the results of the current study in terms of health strategies are in line with the findings of studies by Afroozeh (2011), Zaytoonli (2011), Tabli (2010), Hamidi et al. (2009), Nadri (2009), Jahanbini (2009), Khosravi Zadeh (2008), and Nasirzadeh (2008). The strengths and opportunities for health strategies have been articulated throughout the present study. In addition, the results of the present study are not consistent with the findings of studies by Hamidi et al. (2012) and Saif Panahi Shabani (2011) in terms of the position of health and wellness strategies, which is also compared with the position of health and wellness strategies of the relevant organizations in the window of health and wellness strategies. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that those organizations that are similar in SO position, due to the difference in the final scores of the matrices of the internal and external factors, differ from each other; as a result, consistency in this type of studies is very rare (21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29).
In all these development documents, a similar general framework and structure have been observed for presenting and compiling
the health and health strategies program; accordingly, firstly the desired vision and mission and then the appropriate health goals and strategies and health with this vision and mission are formulated. In the present study, this framework and general structure were considered; accordingly, meetings with officials and experts of physical education of the public university were held and the vision and mission of the General Department of Physical Education of the public university in the field of student sports were developed. After analyzing the environment, the internal and external factors, long-term goals, and health strategies were defined as follows:
 
Perspectives of the General Department of Physical Education of Public Universities
• Quality section
- Development of sports among the academics of public universities and introduction of all university students as athletes
• Quantity
- Achieving the first place in the most significant student sports at the level of universities in the region of Southwest Asia, Islamic world, and country universities
 
Mission of the General Department of Physical Education of Public Universities
Efforts to improve and develop the principled and purposeful student sports at public universities by creating opportunities and expanding a healthy environment for students to participate in sports activities and physical recreation at all levels
 
Long-term Goals of the General Department of Physical Education of public universities
- Becoming the most prestigious and respected student sports organization in the country
- Holding competitions from the lowest level in university centers to university Olympiads all over the country
- Identifying and preparing a database of the capacities of the public university for the development of student sports
- Codification of policies, procedures, systems, and structures for the effective management and implementation of physical education in all university centers
- Acquiring the first place in terms of the social participation of academics in student sports among the country’s universities
- Educating students to pay tribute to Islamic-national values, play fair, and fight against doping through sports
- Transforming the General Department of Physical Education of Universities into a policy-making, supervising, and effective sponsor for universities in all provinces
 
 
Conclusion

 
In this study, the student sports of the General Department of Physical Education of public universities were strong in terms of the internal factors and had opportunities regarding the external factors. In addition, the General Department of Physical Education of public universities in student sports has achieved the final grade in the domain of growth and construction, which is consistent with the results of previous studies. The sports officials of the public university should develop their programs in such a way that they overcome their weaknesses as much as possible and become ready to face the threats, according to the final scores of the internal and external factors matrices of the General Department of Physical Education. However, the position of the existing health and wellness strategies, located in the SO domain, is close to the health and other areas near the window center, indicating that the current situation of the General Department of Physical Education of public universities is weak and unstable. Finally, it is proposed to develop health strategies programs for physical education departments of the provinces implementing in public universities and carry out studies on how to implement health strategies for student sports health at public universities. Accordingly, the present study can be used for student sports at other universities, such as Azad University and Payame Noor University.
 
 
Footnotes

 
Acknowledgements
This article was extracted from a PhD dissertation on Sport Management. The authors’ deepest appreciation goes to all those who contributed to the accomplishment of the present research.
 
Funding
The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
 
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
 
 
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Mahmoodi S, Razavi S M, Dousti M, Tabesh S. Investigation and Prioritization of Factors Affecting Implementation of Student Sports Development Health Strategies. Arch Hyg Sci. 2020; 9 (4) :287-298
URL: http://jhygiene.muq.ac.ir/article-1-453-en.html


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